Spotting fake journals

Several recent developments have made the problem of fake international scientific journals an even bigger one.  These "journals"--websites that operate only for money and do not have peer review or meet other standards--are known as predatory journals, and some of them sponsor fake "conferences" as well.  Submitting articles to them, citing articles from them in research, or participating in their conferences spoils the reputation of the scholar and the university.  Their websites can be very clever. If the publisher of a journal or other source you are examining is not a well-known one such as Elsevier, Taylor & Francis, Springer, Nature, and so on, you are welcome and encouraged to check with the Center for Academic Writing for further information and assistance in reviewing the site.